TSHA Home Publications Education Events Southwestern Historical Quarterly The Handbook of Texas Online About Us News Site Search Contact Us Giving Opportunities Links FAQ Join the TSHA
skip to content
TSHA Online Home
Handbook of Texas Online

Article Extract


HISTORIC 1600-1800 Cabeza de Vaca; Spanish missions; entry of Tonkawas, Apaches, and Comanches Spanish Colonial artifacts; gunflints; metal arrowpoints
LATE PREHISTORIC 700-1600 Toyah phase bison hunters; villages in the Panhandle; Caddo cultures in East Texas pottery; introduction of bow and arrow (tiny arrowpoints); agriculture in parts of state
TRANSITIONAL ARCHAIC 300 B.C.-A.D. 700 first mounds in East Texas; hunters and gatherers continue elsewhere dart points are smaller: Ensor, Frio, Fairland, Paisano
LATE ARCHAIC 1000-300 bison hunting in Panhandle, lower Pecos, Central Texas; increased trade; cemeteries in Southeast and South Texas large points for hunting; Castroville, Montell; "corner tang" knives
MIDDLE ARCHAIC 2500-1000 hunters and gatherers across Texas; rock art begins in lower Pecos; burned-rock middens in Central Texas Langtry points in West Texas; Pedernales points in Central Texas
EARLY ARCHAIC 6000-2500 development of modern vegetation and fauna; hunting and gathering; possible period of aridity 5500-3000 B.C. widespread point types cut across regions: Bell, Uvalde, Martindale, Gower
PALEO-INDIAN 9600-6000 earliest occupations by Native Americans, with Pleistocene or ice age ending around 8000 B.C.; first peoples are known as Clovis and hunted mammoths and other ice-age animals distinctive point types: Angostura, Golondrina, Plainview, Folsom, Clovis
From Ron Tyler, Douglas E. Barnett, Roy R. Barkley, Penelope C. Anderson, Mark F. Odintz, eds., "Prehistory," The New Handbook of Texas, 6 vols., (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1996), Vol. 5, p. 321.
Copyright © Texas State Historical Association    Published by the Texas State Historical Association
and distributed in partnership with the University of North Texas
Policy Agreement