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Lone Star Blue and Gray - Introduction by Ralph A. Wooster

In the 1850s a series of events focusing on the expansion of slavery in the national territories divided the northern and southern sections of the United States. Increasing numbers of northerners, convinced of the evils of chattel slavery, were determined to halt its expansion. Southerners, most of whom believed in state rights, argued that the Federal government had no right to interfere with slavery and looked for ways to expand it.

The 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States on a platform opposing any expansion of slavery convinced many southerners that separation from the Union was the only means of preserving their way of life. In the winter of 1860-1861 seven states of the lower South seceded from the Union. South Carolina, the most radical southern state, was the first to take action. In mid-December her state convention passed an ordinance of secession by a unamious vote. In early January, Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama followed, with Georgia and Louisiana joining them a month later.

Texas was the last state in the lower South to secede. A state convention, meeting in late January 1861, adopted an ordinance of secession subject to ratification by the state's voters. In February Texans approved the ordinance by a three to one margin. The state convention then moved to join Texas with other seceding states in the Confederate States of America.

With these actions Texas and other slaveholding states began a four-year struggle for recognition as a sovereign nation. The war that followed as Americans fought one another over the preservation of the Union and the independence of the Confederacy was one of the bloodiest conflicts in modern history. Between the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861 and the final collapse of the Confederacy in late spring 1865, more than six hundred thousand Americans died. Thousands of others were wounded or disabled.

Although a frontier state, Texas played a significant role in the American Civil War. Over seventy thousand Texans fought for the Confederacy. Another two thousand served in the Union army. Scarcely a household in the state was unaffected as mothers and wives assumed new roles in managing farms and plantations while husbands and sons were away at war. The increasing effectiveness of the Union naval blockade along the Texas coastline interrupted the shipment of cotton and grains from the state and interfered with the importation of various commodities. Union invaders were repulsed at Corpus Christi, Laredo, Port Lavaca, and Sabine Pass, but Galveston, Indianola, and Brownsville were occupied by Federal troops.1

Texans were divided by the war. While the majority of citizens favored and supported the Confederacy, a sizeable minority, including some of the state's most influential leaders such as Governor Houston, former Governor Elisha M. Pease, Congressman A. J. Hamilton, District Judge Edmund J. Davis, and state legislators James W. Throckmorton, John Hancock, Ben Epperson, and George Whitmore, opposed secession. Some of these Texas unionists came to support the Confederate cause but others, notably A. J. Hamilton and Edmund J. Davis, never accepted secession and worked actively to preserve the Union.2

Unionist sentiment in Texas was strongest among the Germans of central Texas and the settlers in the counties along the Red River. Even in these areas there was division, however. Several German counties turned in heavy majorities for secession and hundreds of Germans served in the Confederate army. In the Red River counties voters rejected secession, but Colonel William Cocke Young, himself a unionist, recruited a military unit in the area that served with distinction in the Confederate army as the Eleventh Texas Cavalry.3

Texans fought in every major battle of the Civil War except First Manassas and Chancellorsville. They fought in New Mexico Territory, Maryland, Pennsylvania and every state of the Confederacy (including Kentucky and Missouri) except Florida. They battled the enemy in the hills and mountains of Arkansas, Missouri, and Indian Territory, along the banks of the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, Arkansas, Red, James, and York Rivers, in the bluegrass of Kentucky, in the red clay of Georgia, and in the pine forests and bayous of Louisiana. They recaptured Galveston from enemy occupiers and drove invaders away from other Texas seaports. They played a major role in defeating Nathaniel P. Banks in the Red River campaign and helped turn back Frederick Steele in his drive into southern Arkansas. The first surrender of United States troops in the war occurred in San Antonio two months before the firing on Fort Sumter when Ben McCulloch convinced Union Brigadier General David Twiggs to turn over all Federal property in Texas. The last battle of the Civil War was fought at Palmetto Ranch near Brownsville a month after Robert E. Lee had surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse.4

In the course of the war Texans distinguished themselves on various battle fronts. Two of the Confederacy's eight full generals, Albert Sidney Johnston and John Bell Hood, were Texans. Johnston, considered one of America's finest soldiers, was a native of Kentucky but served in the army of the Texas Republic and lived in Texas for two decades prior to the Civil War. When the Civil War began he resigned his commission in the United States Army and was appointed commander of the Confederate western department. His untimely death at Shiloh while commanding Southern forces was a major blow to the Confederacy. Hood, like Johnston a native of Kentucky, was stationed in Texas prior to the war and considered it his adopted home. Early in the war he became commander of three Texas regiments that came to be known as Hood's Texas Brigade, one of the most famous of all Civil War military units.5

In addition to Johnston and Hood, thirty-five other Texans served as general officers in the Confederate army. Two, John A. Wharton and Thomas Rosser, attained the rank of major general; the other thirty-three were brigadier generals. Among these Ben McCulloch, Matthew D. Ector, Hiram Granbury, Tom Green, John Gregg, Sam Maxey and Lawrence Sullivan Ross were the most prominent. Ten of the thirty-seven Texas general officers died during the war; Granbury, Green, Gregg, Johnston, McCulloch, Horace Randal, and William R. Scurry on the field of battle; John A. Wharton in an altercation with fellow Texas officer George W. Baylor; and Joseph L. Hogg and Allison Nelson from disease.6

Hood's Brigade was the only Texas military unit to serve with Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during the war. The brigade, consisting of the First, Fourth, and Fifth Texas Infantry and the Eighteenth Georgia (later replaced by the Third Arkansas), distinguished itself in fighting in Virginia and Tennessee, particularly in the battles of Gaines Mill, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, and the Wilderness. Its casualty rates were high. The First Texas sustained 82.3 percent losses at Sharpsburg, the highest of any regiment in a single engagement in the Civil War. The Fourth and Fifth Texas also suffered heavy casualties. Of the 5,300 men who served in the brigade during the war only 617 were with the brigade when Lee's army surrendered at Appomattox.7

Hood's Brigade was highly regarded by General Lee. The Brigade's finest hour may have been in the Wilderness campaign of 1864 when the Texans drove back the enemy while Lee looked on approvingly. It was on this occasion that the Virginian remarked "Texans always move them," a tribute to the Brigade's many successes in battle.8

Terry's Texas Rangers was another well-known Texas military unit. Recruited in central and coastal Texas by wealthy Brazoria planter Benjamin F. Terry, the Rangers, officially the Eighth Texas Cavalry, fought in all the major campaigns in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and the Carolinas, including the battles at Perryville, Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Bentonville. Terry himself was killed near Woodsonville, Kentucky, in December 1861, but the Rangers, subsequently commanded by John A. Wharton and later Tom Harrison and Gustave Cooke, continued to carry Terry's name. With a reputation for boldness and daring, the Rangers were known for their fearlessness in the attack, preferring the six-shooter and double-barreled shotgun to the cavalry saber.9

Ross's Cavalry Brigade, Granbury's Infantry Brigade, and Ector's Infantry Brigade were other Texas units particularly noted for their fighting skills. Ross's Brigade, consisting of the Third, Sixth, Ninth, and Twenty-Seventh Texas Cavalry, played a major role in the Mississippi campaigns of 1863-1864 and in the fighting around Atlanta in 1864. Granbury's Brigade, consisting of five Texas regiments commanded by Waco lawyer-county judge Hiram Granbury, distinguished itself fighting in northern Georgia and Tennessee in 1864. Ector's Brigade, made up of four Texas regiments and units from Alabama, Mississippi, and North Carolina, also fought in these campaigns. The Brigade commander, Matthew D. Ector, was a Rusk county lawyer and state legislator who, like Nathan Bedford Forrest, enlisted as a private when the war began and rose to the rank of general officer.10

Walker's Division, which distinguished itself in the Arkansas and Louisiana campaigns of 1863 and 1864, was the largest Texas unit in the Civil War. With the exception of its commander, Major General John G. Walker, a Missourian who earlier served with Lee's army in Virginia in 1862., the division was an all-Texas unit. Known as "Walker's Greyhounds" because of its extensive and rapid marches, the division numbered among its members a former governor of the state, Colonel Edward Clark of the Fourteenth Texas Infantry, and two future governors, Colonel O. M. Roberts of the Eleventh Texas Infantry and Colonel Richard B. Hubbard of the Twenty-Second Texas Infantry.11

Other Texas military units that served with distinction included Polignac's Brigade, an infantry brigade made up of Texans led by a French aristocrat, Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac; the Second Texas Infantry, a regiment first commanded by John Moore and later by William P. Rogers and Ashbel Smith; and Wauls Legion, consisting of several infantry companies and cavalry and artillery detachments recruited and commanded by Washington County planter Thomas Waul. These Texans served principally in Louisiana and Mississippi; Polignac's Brigade taking part in the Red River campaign, the Second Infantry in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, and Vicksburg, and Wauls Legion in the battle and siege of Vicksburg.12

Few Texas military units saw service as varied as the cavalry regiments that made up the Sibley Brigade. Commanded by Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley in the New Mexico campaign, the brigade, consisting of the Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Texas Cavalry, defeated Federal troops at Valverde and Glorieta Pass before being forced to retreat back into Texas. Units of the brigade later participated in the Confederate recapture of Galveston on January I, 1863. In early 1863 they were transferred to Louisiana, where they helped stop Major General William B. Franklin's advance in the bayou country. Departmental chief Richard Taylor removed Sibley from command and replaced him with Texan Tom Green, who had served as Sibley's deputy in New Mexico. Under Green's leadership the brigade took part in the successful Confederate efforts to block Nathaniel P. Banks's move up the Red River in 1864.13

The most famous small Texas military unit was Company F, First Texas Heavy Artillery, better known as the Davis Guards. Made up of Irishmen recruited in Houston, the Davis Guards participated in several coastal operations early in the war but gained their greatest fame for the heroic defense of Sabine Pass in September 1863. Commanded by Lieutenant Richard W. Dowling that day, the Guards, consisting of forty-three men, defeated a major Union invasion force of some four thousand men and four gunboats in one of the war's most brilliant actions. For their gallantry the guards were praised by Major General John B. Magruder, Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and the Confederate Congress, and a special medal was given to every member of the company.14

The war affected the lives of all Texans, not just those in uniform. Although Texas suffered less than most other Confederate states, many adjustments in life-style were made necessary by the war. The Union naval blockade, while never totally effective, resulted in shortages of many commodities, especially coffee, medicine, clothing, shoes, and farm tools. The shortage of coffee was particularly felt by Texans. Colonel Arthur Fremantle, a British visitor to Texas during the war, noted that the loss of coffee was a matter of serious concern and observed that Texans exercised their ingenuity in devising substitutes. While traveling in East Texas he was served a mixture called "Confederate coffee" made of rye, meal, Indian corn, and sweet potatoes. Eliza McHatton-Ripley, a refugee from Louisiana living in Texas, noted that Texans drank a variety of substitutes including peanuts, sweet potatoes, rye, beans, peas, and cornmeal. "All of them were wretched imitations," she wrote, "though gulped down, when chilly and tired for lack of anything better." The family of Mathilda Doebbler Gruen, a young German Texan, used parched rye and wheat as a coffee substitute.15

Trade with Mexico enabled Texans to avoid some of the hardships suffered in other southern states. In exchange for cotton Texans received military supplies, medicines, dry goods, and other commodities. Matamoros, on the Rio Grande across from Brownsville, and Bagdad, a small seaport village thirty miles downriver, became centers of the overland trade from Texas as hundreds of vessels from Europe and the United States engaged in a flourishing business.16

Even though Texans were more fortunate than other Southerners in being able to trade with Mexico, the war brought many changes. Wartime needs stimulated industries already established and encouraged development of new ones. The promotion of manufacturing was one of the responsibilities of the Texas State Military Board, created in 1862. Under its direction a percussion cap factory and a cannon foundry were established at Austin. A textile mill constructed at the state penitentiary at Huntsville produced nearly three million yards of cotton and wool during the war. Major ordnance works were built at Tyler, Bastrop, Galveston, Houston, Rusk, and San Antonio. The Confederate quartermaster department operated facilities at Austin, Houston, Huntsville, Jefferson, Mount Prairie, San Antonio, and Tyler. Shipyards were built at Goose Creek and Beaumont for the construction and repair of naval vessels.17

Texas women often assumed new roles during the war. Although some, such as Martha Gaffney, Rebecca Hagerty, and Sarah Devereux, had managed farms and plantations before the war, other Texas women performed these tasks for the first time while their husbands and sons were in the army. Some Texas women entered professions formerly reserved for men, such as teaching. Others worked in hospitals and sickwards; made sheets, pillow cases and bandages; and assisted servicemen and their families with food, shelter, and clothing. One Texas woman, Sophie Coffee Butts Porter, obtained information about enemy troop movements and rode twenty-five miles to warn the Confederates, earning her the nickname "Paul Revere of the Civil War." Sally Scull, a horse trader before the war, became a gunrunner during the conflict. She freighted cotton to the Rio Grande, where she exchanged it for weapons and ammunition for the Confederacy.18

Many Texas women experienced loneliness caused by separation from their husbands and sweethearts as the war continued. For those women living on the frontier there was the added concern of Indian raids or attacks by Jayhawkers or marauders. An Indian raid in Cooke county in 1863 resulted in the death and capture of a dozen women and children. For other Texas women there was the sadness and despair that came with the news that a loved one had been killed on the field of battle or died from wounds or disease while in a hospital or prison camp.19

The Civil War and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation ultimately meant the end of slavery in Texas and the other southern states. During the war itself most Texas slaves continued working on farms and plantations as they had before the war. There were no major slave rebellions during the conflict and although some slaves ran away the number did not increase dramatically. The comparative security of Texas from enemy invasion caused many Louisiana and Arkansas planters to "refugee" their slaves in Texas for the duration of the war.20

The most serious disruption of slave life in Civil War Texas came from impressment by the military. Under Confederate law military commanders could impress private property, including slaves, for public service. General John B. Magruder, commander of the Texas district, impressed hundreds of slaves in building a stockade to enclose Federal prisoners of war near Tyler, in fortifying Sabine Pass, and in preparing defenses on the San Bernard River and Caney Creek. While Magruder's actions were necessary for Texas's defense, they were seldom popular with slaves or slaveowners. Although the owners received compensation, the absence of slaves interfered with normal plantation work. Too, the owners and slaves complained that slaves were not properly cared for while under military control.21

News of military defeats in Georgia, Tennessee, and Virginia in late 1864 and early 1865 convinced many Texans that the war was lost. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865, followed by that of Joe Johnston in North Carolina, made further resistance appear futile. Texan John S. Ford defeated Union invaders at Palmetto Ranch near Brownsville in May 1865 in the last battle of the war. From captured prisoners Ford learned that Confederate forces elsewhere had surrendered. Although Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, head of the Trans-Mississippi department, and John B. Magruder, commander of the Texas district, attempted to rally forces in Texas, many soldiers, realizing the war was over, headed for home. On June 2, 1865, Smith and Magruder surrendered their commands to Union officals at Galveston.

The story of Texas participation in the American Civil War has been treated in various accounts. Some of the most thorough studies have appeared in essays published in historical journals. The present work has been prepared in the belief that readers would welcome a compilation of such essays in a single volume. In selecting the essays for inclusion the compiler has attempted to provide a broad coverage so that most aspects of Texas's role in the war are discussed. A brief introduction to each article is provided, as well as suggestions for additional reading.

Unsurprisingly, the majority of the essays appeared first in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly, the premier journal for Texas history. Other articles in this volume were first published in Civil War History, East Texas Historical Journal, Military History of the Southwest, and Texana. The compiler wishes to thank the editors of these journals for their generous permission to reprint these essays. Special thanks go also to Ron Tyler, director of the Texas State Historical Association, and George Ward, managing editor of the Southwestern Historical Quarterly, for their encouragement and assistance in the publication of this volume. Photographic consultant Lawrence T. Jones III has been most generous with his time, advice, and the contents of his extensive collection of photographs.

1. Because of the loss of many Confederate records at the end of the war it is impossible to determine the exact number of Texans who served in Confederate and state forces during the conflict. In November 1863, Governor Francis R. Lubbock reported to the Texas legislature that ninety thousand Texans were in the military at that time, but this figure seems high. Stephen B. Dates, who has studied enrollment figures carefully, believes that eighty-eight thousand Texans, fifty-eight thousand in the cavalry and thirty thousand in the infantry and artillery, served in the military during the war. See Oates, "Texas Under the Secessionists," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, LXVII (Oct., 1963), 187. Dudley G. Wooten, A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685 to 1807 (Dallas: William G. ScarfF, 1898), II, 571, calculated that 89,500 Texans served in Confederate and state forces. Robert P. Felgar, "Texas in the War for Southern Independence, 1861—1865" (Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, 1935), 106, estimated that sixty thousand Texans served in the Confederate army. Archie P. McDonald, in A Nation of Sovereign States: Secession and War in the Confederacy, Journal of Confederate History Series, Vol. X (Murfreesboro, Tenn.: Southern Heritage Press, 1994), 87, believes that sixty to seventy thousand Texans served in the military during the war.

2. In addition to the articles by Claude Elliott and Frank Smyrl in this volume see James Marten, Texas Divided: Loyalty and Dissent in the Lone Star State, 1856-1874 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1990); Elliott, Leathercoat: The Life of James W. Throckmorton (San Antonio: Standard Printing Co., 1938); Smyrl, "Unionism in Texas, 1856-1861," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, LXVIII (Oct., 1964), 171-195; Ralph A. Wooster, "Ben H. Epperson: East Texas Lawyer, Legislator, and Civic Leader," East Texas Historical Journal, V (Mar., 1967), 29—42; Randolph B. Campbell, "George W. Whitmore: East Texas Unionist," ibid., XXVIII (Spring, 1990), 17-28; John L. Waller, Colossal Hamilton of Texas: A Biography of Andrew Jackson Hamilton (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1968); and Ronald N. Gray, "Edmund J. Davis: Radical Republican and Reconstruction Governor of Texas" (Ph.D. diss., Texas Tech University, 1976).

3. Terry G. Jordan, German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-Century Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966), 182-185; Ella Lonn, Foreigners in the Confederacy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1940), 123-126, 193-194, 500-501; Richard B. McCaslin, Tainted Breeze: The Great Hanging at Gainesville, Texas, 1862 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994), 41-48; Richard B. McCaslin, "Conditional Confederates: The Eleventh Texas Cavalry West of the Mississippi River," Military History of the Southwest, XXI (Spring, 1991), 87-99.

4. There were several Texans, including Tom Lubbock, Benjamin Terry, and Tom Goree, at the battle of First Manassas. They had come to Richmond in early summer 1861 to inquire as to Confederate military needs. All three served as volunteer aides on the staff of Brigadier General James Longstreet at First Manassas. Goree remained on Longstreet's staff for the duration of the war. Terry and Lubbock returned to Texas to organize the Eighth Texas Cavalry, which became known as Terry's Texas Rangers. Terry was killed in fighting in Kentucky in December 1861 and Lubbock died from natural causes the following month. Harold B. Simpson, Hood's Texas Brigade: Lee's Grenadier Guard (Waco: Texian Press, 1970), 41, 48.

The First Texas Infantry, which later was part of Hood's Brigade, arrived in Richmond in mid-July but too late to participate in the battle at First Manassas. The brigade took part in all the other major battles in the East except Chancellorsville. As part of Longstreet s Corps it was on detached duty in the Suffolk area of Virginia when this battle was fought. Simpson, ibid., 224—234. Texans fought in all the major campaigns in the Trans-Appalachian and Trans-Mississippi regions as well as in Georgia and the Carolinas.

5. For Johnston and Hood see Charles P. Roland, Albert Sidney Johnston: Soldier of Three Republics (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1964); John Bell Hood, Advance and Retreat: Personal Experiences in the United States and Confederate States Armies (New Orleans: G. T. Beauregard, Published for Hood Orphan Memorial Fund, 1880); John P. Dyer, The Gallant Hood (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1950), and Richard M. McMurray, John Bell Hood and the War for Southern Independence (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1982).

6. There is some disagreement as to the exact number of general officers from Texas in the Confederate army. I have used the names given in Marcus J. Wright (comp.), Texas in the War, 1861-1865, ed. Harold B. Simpson (Hillsboro: Hill Junior College Press, 1965), 3-18. This varies slightly from Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray; Lives of Confederate Commanders (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959). Warner does not include A. P. Bagby, Xavier B. Debray, Wilburn H. King, Hinche P. Mabry, Horace Randal, and A. W. Terrell. He does note that Bagby, Debray, King, Randal, and Terrell were assigned as general officers in the Trans-Mississippi department but not appointed by President Davis. Ibid., 351-352. Warner fails to mention Hinche P. Mabry of Jefferson, described by Wright and Simpson, Texas in the War, 86, as "promoted to brigade general by E. Kirby Smith sometime in 1864 . . . but never confirmed by Jefferson Davis or the Confederate Senate." Wright and Simpson do not include James P. Major, a native of Missouri who commanded a Texas cavalry brigade in Louisiana, but he is included in the list of Texas general officers by Richard M. McMurray, Two Great Rebel Armies: An Essay in Confederate Military History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 163-164.

Thomas L. Rosser, a major general in Lee's army, was more closely identified with his native Virginia than Texas. He is often listed among generals from that state. His family migrated to Texas in the 1840s, however, and his appointment to West Point was from Texas. He is listed as a Texas officer in Wright and Simpson, Texas in the War, 15, 92. Both Tom Green and Sam Maxey were recommended by their commanders for promotion to major general but neither promotion was ever approved by the President and the Senate. Warner, Generals in Gray, 117-118, 216.

7. The definitive account of the Texas Brigade is by Harold B. Simpson: Hood's Texas Brigade in Poetry and Song (Waco: Texian Press, 1968); Hood's Texas Brigade: Lee's Grenadier Guard (Waco: Texi-an Press, 1970); Hood's Texas Brigade in Reunion and Memory (Waco: Texian Press, 1974); and Hood's Texas Brigade: A Compendium (Waco: Texian Press, 1977).

8. R. C., "Texans Always Move Them," The Land We Love, V (1868), 481-486; Gordon C. Rhea, The Battle of the Wilderness, May 5—6, 1864 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994), 199-302; Gary Gallagher (ed.), Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 358.

9. Among the various accounts of the Eighth Texas Cavalry are L. B. Giles, Terry's Rangers (Austin: Pemberton Press, 1967); C. C. Jeffries, Terry's Rangers (New York: Vantage Press, 1961); J. K. P. Blackburn, "Reminiscences of the Terry Rangers," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXII (Ju-ly-Oct.; 1918), 38-77, 143-179; Thomas W. Cutrer (ed.), "'We Are Stern and Resolved': The Civil War Letters of John Wesley Rabb, Terry's Texas Rangers," ibid., XCI (Oct., 1987), 185-226; Robert W. Williams and Ralph A. Wooster (eds.), "With Terry's Texas Rangers: Letters of Dunbar Affleck," Civil War History, IX (Sept., 1963), 299-319; and H. J. H. Rugeley (ed.), Batchelor-Turner Letters, 1861-1864, Written by Two of Terry's Texas Rangers (Austin: Steck Company, 1961).

10. See Homer L. Kerr (ed.), Fighting With Ross' Texas Cavalry Brigade, C.S.A.: The Diary of George L. Griscom, Adjutant, ath Texas Cavalry Regiment (Hillsboro: Hill Junior College Press), 1976; Judy Watson (ed.), Confederate From East Texas: The Civil War Letters of James Monroe Watson (Quanah: Nortex Press, 1968); Douglas Hale, The Third Texas Cavalry in the Civil War (Norman: University of Oklahoma Pres, 1993); Norman Brown (ed.), One of Cleburne's Command: The Civil War Reminiscences and Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury's Texas Brigade, CSA (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980); James M. McCaffrey, This Band of Heroes: Granbury's Texas Brigade, C. S. A. (Austin: Eakin Press, 1985); Peter Cozzens, This Terrible Sound: The Battle of Chickamauga (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992), 135; and Clement A. Evans (ed.), Confederate Military History (12 vols.; Atlanta: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899), XI, 185.

11. The most complete account of Walker's Division is J. P. Blessington, The Campaigns of Walker's Texas Division (1875; reprint, Austin: State House Press, 1994). See also Norman D. Brown (ed.), Journey to Pleasant Hill: The Civil War Letters of Captain Elijah P. Petty, Walker's Texas Division, C.S.A. (San Antonio: Institute of Texas Cultures, 1982); Thomas W. Cutrer (ed.), "'An Experience in Soldier's Life': The Civil War Letter of Volney Ellis Adjutant, Twelfth Texas Infantry, Walker's Texas Division, C. S. A.," Military History of the Southwest, XXII (Fall, 1992), 109-172; and Thomas W. Cutrer (ed.), '"Bully for Flournoy's Regiment, We Are Some Pumkins, You'll Bet': The Civil War Letters of Virgil Sullivan Rabb, Captain 'I,' Sixteenth Texas Infantry, C. S. A.," ibid., XIX (Fall, 1989), 161-190; XX (Spring, 1990), 61-96.

12. See Alwyn Barr, Polignac's Texas Brigade (Houston: Texas Gulf Coast Historical Association Publication Series, 1964); Joseph E. Chance, The Second Texas Infantry: From Shiloh to Vicksburg (Austin: Eakin Press, 1984); Laura Simmons, "Wauls Legion From Texas to Mississippi," Texana, VII (Spring, 1969), i—16; Wayne Flynt, "The Texas Legion at Vicksburg," East Texas Historical Journal, XVII (Spring, 1979), 60-67.

13. Theo. Noel, A Campaign From Santa Fe to the Mississippi: Being a History of the Old Sibley Brigade (Shreveport: News Printing Establishment, 1865); Martin Hardwick Hall, Sibley's New Mexico Campaign (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1960); Odie B. Faulk, General Tom Green: Fightin' Texan (Waco: Texian Press, 1963); T. Michael Parrish, Richard Taylor. Soldier Prince of Dixie (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992).

14. Andrew Forest Muir, "Dick Dowling and the Battle of Sabine Pass," Civil War History, IV (Dec., 1958), 399-418; Stewart Sifakis, Compendium of the Confederate Armies: Texas (New York: Facts on File, 1995), 9.

15. Arthur James L. Fremantle, The Fremantle Diary: Being the Journal of Lieutenant Colonel Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, Coldstream Guards, on His Three Months in the Southern States, ed. Walter Lord (reprint; Boston: Little, Brown, 1954), 62; Eliza McHatton Ripley, From Flag to Flag: A Woman's Adventures and Experiences in the South during the War, in Mexico, and in Cuba (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1896), 101; Jo Ella Powell Exley (ed.), Texas Tears and Texas Sunshine: Voices of Frontier Women (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1985), 113.

16. The most complete account of the trade through Mexico is James W. Daddysman, The Matamoros Trade: Confederate Commerce, Diplomacy, and Intrigue (Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press, 1984). See also Robert W. Delaney, "Matamoros, Port for Texas During the Civil War," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, LVIII (Apr., 1955), 473-487; Ronnie C. Tyler, "Cotton on the Border," ibid., LXXIII (Apr., 1970), 456-477; Mitchell Smith, "The 'Neutral' Matamoros Trade, 1861-1865," Southwest Review, XXXVtl (Autumn, 1952), 319-324; and Fredericka Meiners, "The Texas Border Cotton Trade, 1862-1863," Civil War History, XXIII (Dec., 1977), 293-306.

17. Charles W. Ramsdell, "The Texas State Military Board, 1862-1865," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXVII (Apr., 1924), 253-275; William A. Albaugh III, Tyler, Texas: C. S. A. (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Company, 1958), 11-12, 20-26, 270-271; Bill Winsor, Texas In the Confederacy: Military Installations, Economy, and People (Hillsboro: Hill Junior College Press, 1978), 41-43; James L. Nichols, The Confederate Quartermaster in the Trans-Mississippi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1964), 88-89.

18. Katharine G. Goodwin, "'A Woman's Curosity': Martha Gaffney and Cotton Planting on the Texas Frontier," East Texas Historical Journal, XXIV (Fall, 1986), 4-17; Judith N. McArthur, "Myth, Reality, and Anomaly: The Complex World of Rebecca Hagerty," ibid., XXIV (Fall, 1986), 18-32; Joleene Maddox Snider, "Sarah Devereux: A Study in Southern Femininity," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XCVII (Jan., 1994), 498-502; Drew Gilpin Faust, Southern Stories: Slaveholders in Peace and War (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992), 174—192; Elizabeth Silverthorne, Plantation Life in Texas (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1986), 198—199; Mary Elizabeth Massey, Bonnet Brigades (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), 79—108; Annie Doom Pickrell, Pioneer Women in Texas (Austin: E. L. Steck, 1929), 202; and Ruthe Winegarten, Texas Women: A Pictorial History from Indians to Astronauts (Austin: Eakin Press, 1986), 28.

19. James Wilson Nichols, Now You Can Hear My Horn: The Journal of James Wilson Nichols, ed. Catherine W McDowell (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968), 151-154; Exley, Texas Tears and Texas Sunshine, 146-147; David Paul Smith, "Frontier Defense and the Cooke County Raid, 1863," West Texas Historical Association Year Book, LXIV (Oct., 1988), 39-41; D. S. Howell, "Along the Texas Frontier During the Civil War," ibid., XIII (Oct., 1937), 85—86; Davis Bitton (ed.), Reminiscences and Civil War Letters of Levi Lamoni Wight: Life in a Mormon Splinter Colony on the Texas Frontier (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1970), 142-143, 158—160; Seymour Connor (ed.), Dear America: Some Letters of Orange Cicero and Mary America (Aiken) Connor (Austin: Pemberton Press, 1971), 39-4°. 53-54, 73~76> 87.

20. Marten, Texas Divided, 107—113; Randolph B. Campbell, An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas, 1821—1865 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), 231-233, 243-244.

21. Campbell, Empire for Slavery, 134-239.