Gunnar Brune

SAN PEDRO SPRINGS. San Pedro Springs is located mainly in San Pedro Park in San Antonio (at 29°27' N, 98°30'W). The springs were named by Father Isidro Félix de Espinosa when he discovered them in 1709. A couple of miles downstream from the springs was the first site of San Antonio de Valero Mission, where the water was used to irrigate crops. The springs were the site of an army camp during the Mexican and Civil wars. The area has always been marshy, and the swamp was converted by dams into a series of small lakes with islands in the late nineteenth century. The water flows from the Edwards and associated limestones along the Balcones fault zone. The springs are recharged from streams up to 100 miles west. In recent years, the flow of the springs has been declining and erratic due to the heavy demands of well pumping.

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Gunnar Brune, "SAN PEDRO SPRINGS," accessed July 22, 2019,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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