Members Only Area
Bookmark and Share
sidebar menu icon


TIERRA BLANCA CREEK. Tierra Blanca Creek rises in Curry County, New Mexico (at 34°50' N, 103°13' W), and enters Texas in southwestern Deaf Smith County. Then it flows east-northeast for seventy-five miles, across southern Deaf Smith and Randall counties, to join Palo Duro Creek east of Canyon near the old T Anchor Ranch headquarters site in northeastern Randall County (at 35°00' N, 101°54' W). The junction of the two streams forms the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River, although in the upper course it is often called Palo Duro Creek. Tierra Blanca Creek begins in flat to rolling terrain with local escarpments where soils are mostly deep, fine sandy loams and the vegetation comprises hardwood forest, brush, and grasses. It flows through flat areas with local shallow depressions where water-tolerant conifers and grasses cover clay loam and sandy loam soils. The headquarters for the XIT Ranch's Escarbada Division, now a part of Lubbock's Ranching Heritage Center, was located near the Tierra Blanca eight miles southwest of Garcia Lake. Hereford, originally called Bluewater, was founded near the stream in 1898. Buffalo Lake is formed by a dam on the stream near Umbarger, and a smaller reservoir, McSpadden Lake, is on the Tierra Blanca southeast of downtown Canyon.

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to:

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

"TIERRA BLANCA CREEK," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed December 01, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.