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PRESIDIALES. Presidiales technically were soldiers attached to a Spanish presidio, but the term was often loosely applied to other military forces. The usual personnel of a presidial company at full strength was one captain, one lieutenant, one first-degree ensign, one second-degree ensign, a chaplain, an armorer, two sergeants, a drummer, four corporals, four riflemen, and fifty-six soldiers. Spanish soldiers were regarded as employees of the government and were required to provide their own uniforms, horses, arms, and food. Soldiers had to provide personally for the welfare of their families, if any, even on the frontier.

Frank W. Blackman, Spanish Institutions of the Southwest (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1891; rpt., Glorieta, New Mexico: Rio Grande Press, 1976). Francis de Burgos, The Administration of Teodoro de Croix, Commander-General of the Provincias Internas de Mexico, 1776–1783 (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1927).

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, "PRESIDIALES," accessed April 18, 2019,

Uploaded on September 19, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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