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CAMP BRECKENRIDGE. Camp Breckenridge was on Gunsolus (now Gonzales) Creek six miles above its confluence with Hubbard Creek, near Crystal Falls in northern Stephens County. The camp was established by Col. James M. Norris with half of Capt. John Salmon's company of the Frontier Regiment on March 21, 1862. Salmon's company, which was organized in February 1862 with slightly more than 100 men, maintained Camp Salmon in southwestern Stephens County and Camp Breckenridge as a deterrent against Indian aggression. However, Capt. R. Whiteside, who commanded at Breckenridge in 1863, stated that the only service satisfactorily rendered was to carry the mail, because "the patrol keeps our horses poor and when we find Indians they can outrun us." Beset by inadequate supplies, low morale, and frequent changing of officers, the camp supplied little real service. A report late in 1863 found only twenty-six out of fifty-four men who should have been in camp: one had been killed, four were absent without leave, and the rest were either sick, on patrol, or hunting for lost horses. The entire Frontier Regiment was mustered into regular Confederate service in the last year of the Civil War. The camp was used briefly during Reconstruction by area settlers who took refuge there against Indian raids.


Loy W. Hartsfield, A History of Stephens County (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1929). William Curry Holden, "Frontier Defense in Texas during the Civil War," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 4 (1928).

Charles G. Davis

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Charles G. Davis, "CAMP BRECKENRIDGE," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 30, 2015. Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.