While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


Teresa Palomo Acosta

TEXAS FARM WORKERS UNION. The Texas Farm Workers Union was established under the leadership of Antonio Orendain in August 1975, almost a decade after he began organizing for the United Farm Workers Union in the Rio Grande valley. When ordered to Chicago by UFW in the late 1960s to help run the union's national grape and lettuce boycotts, Orendain complied, but several years later, after returning to the Valley, he ended his association with UFW in order to devote himself to organizing Texas agricultural workers under a separate banner. One account suggests that UFW hesitated to become involved in Texas because it was preoccupied with union elections in California, where it had just won a major victory. Other accounts of TFWU history indicate that UFW did not generally encourage Orendain's efforts to organize farmworkers in Texas. Indeed, conflicts over this and other issues characterized the relationship between TFWU and UFW throughout the former's life. A confrontation that occurred on May 26, 1975, between union organizers and El Texano Ranch, in Hidalgo, Reynosa, Mexico, propelled the state union effort forward. The event resulted in a spontaneous strike during which a ranch supervisor fired upon the strikers and their supporters. The farmworkers' involvement in the action grew into a strike that lasted throughout the melon season and spread to the Trans-Pecos and Panhandle. Many strikers were arrested. As the strike continued, a core of Valley farmworkers supported the foundation of TFWU because they wanted a local union that would be accountable to them. Other fieldworkers in Texas, however, remained allied with UFW, which was based in Delano, California.

The union had a difficult time from the beginning. Valley growers steadfastly opposed unionization and attained state court injunctions against TFWU pickets in the summer of 1975 on the grounds that the union did not represent a majority of their employees. In addition, TFWU could not count on the important support of the AFL-CIO, which was officially allied with UFW. Working independently, the union resorted to "hit-and-run" strike tactics. It could not pull laborers out of the fields for very long because it had no funds to support them and their families. Still, TFWU carried out nonviolent strikes in the Valley and pressed the farmworker cause in the media throughout its first two years. The union also published its own newspaper, El Cuhamil, to cover its activities. Besides organizing in the Rio Grande valley, TFWU sought to unite farmworkers in West Texas, where it temporarily shut down a packing shed and forced melon growers in Presidio, who feared losing their crops, to raise wages from sixty cents to $1.25 an hour. In 1976 TFWU began campaigning for passage of a state law to establish a Texas Agricultural Board and grant fieldworkers the right to vote on union representation. Senator Carlos Truán (D-Corpus Christi) and Representative Gonzalo Barrientos (D-Austin), among others, sponsored the legislation, which did not make it past subcommittee hearings. The bill may have been introduced during subsequent sessions as well. On February 26, 1977, Orendain led his union members and their supporters on a 420-mile march from San Juan to Austin. The march ended at the Capitol on April 2. A few months later, on June 18, 1977, TFWU started a historic 1,600-mile journey from Austin to Washington to win more public support for agricultural workers and gain an audience with President James E. Carter. The march culminated at the Lincoln Memorial on September 5, 1977. Religious leaders and union officials endorsed the march by the forty people. Carter, however, possibly at the behest of UFW president César Chávez, refused to meet with the marchers.

News coverage of the union's series of "wildcat strikes," in the summer of 1980 in Hereford indicates that TFWU was still active as the new decade began. In addition, in a position paper Orendain discussed his plans to continue the union's work through the 1980s, but no other details of his plans have been located in available TFWU records. One source indicates that TFWU was in existence in 1982, and another cites 1986 as the year of its demise. Because the union's major funding in the 1970s came from small grants and donations, its eventual collapse was likely due to the difficulty of maintaining itself without reliable financial backing. A TFWU proposal to the Catholic Church for a three-year grant of $80,000 was turned down in 1980. The union blamed UFW's influence on church officials for the rejection. Despite its failure, TFWU was credited with regularly lobbying to eliminate antiunion laws in the state. It was also able to garner the aid of local support groups in Austin, Houston, San Antonio, and other cities. Besides raising funds for TFWU, they helped in more basic ways, such as sponsoring a food caravan to farmworker headquarters in San Juan. Although TFWU did not achieve its goal of winning collective-bargaining rights for farmworkers in Texas, it did force public attention on the substandard conditions under which farmworkers lived and argued for state government, agribusiness, and labor unions to remedy the situation.


María Flores Collection, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin. Texas Farm Workers Union Collection, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin.

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Teresa Palomo Acosta, "TEXAS FARM WORKERS UNION," accessed July 12, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/oct03.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Modified on September 4, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...