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TEXAS STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION ADVOCATE. The Advocate is the official publication of the Texas State Teachers Association. It was originally entitled the Texas Outlook and began publication in 1917 as a quarterly bulletin. In September 1919 it changed to a monthly magazine. In 1965 the Outlook had a circulation of 104,387; in 1971, 146,877. The Texas State Teachers Association changed the magazine name and format in the early 1980s. Advocate circulation is limited principally to members of the teaching profession in Texas. Subscriptions are fifteen dollars a year for people who are not members of the Texas State Teachers Association. In the early 1990s the publication served as a forum for the analysis and reporting of significant aspects of education in Texas, provided information to aid teachers in becoming informed and articulate spokespersons for the importance of education, disseminated news about professional activities, and informed educators about legal, legislative, and other governmental matters affecting them and their work. In 1994 the tabloid magazine published eight issues a year and had a circulation of 90,000. The editorial offices were in Austin, Texas.

Charles H. Tennyson


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Charles H. Tennyson, "TEXAS STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION ADVOCATE," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 25, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.