While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


Cynthia E. Orozco

TEXANS FOR THE EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT OF MEXICAN AMERICANS. TEAMA, a federally funded community information program of parent education operated by Mexican Americans, was based in San Antonio from 1970 to 1972 and served twelve counties. In September 1970, under the Emergency School Assistance Program, Congress authorized money for "school districts facing problems associated with school desegregation." African Americans obtained most of the funds, but Mexican Americans in San Antonio under TEAMA and in Houston under the Mexican American Education Council also received grants. The United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare of the Nixon administration awarded TEAMA a $293,694 grant for a twelve-county program. TEAMA's first officers included Josue M. González (president) and Hubert Miller (first vice president). Members came from Lubbock, Edinburg, San Antonio, Austin, and Del Rio. TEAMA hired Raymond Sánchez as executive director. Frank Alvárez, Jr., edited the TEAMA newsletter Mexitli, later renamed Voz del Consejo. The publication, was distributed to "all barrio citizens in the selected counties," carried articles about citizens' rights, federal programs, Hispanic history, education, and discrimination. TEAMA membership was open to all adults. Regional chapters required at least ten members. Meetings were held quarterly in various parts of Texas. TEAMA established an Educational Group Action Project that was approved by HEW and initiated projects in school districts with segregation problems in Abilene, Amarillo, Brownfield, Cuero, El Campo, Fort Bend, Galveston, Kingsville, Lamar, Lamesa, San Angelo, San Antonio, and Sweetwater. TEAMA organized neighborhood councils in these towns and cities. In San Antonio, councils were formed at St. Mary's University, Cassiano Park, and San Juan, near Lanier High School. TEAMA chapters were also formed in other communities such as Crystal City and Austin.

The councils identified school problems in their localities and sponsored parent workshops. They noted the lack of representation on school boards as a statewide problem: 22 percent of Texas students were Hispanic, but only 10 percent of the school boards had Hispanic members. At the request of the Department of Justice, TEAMA drew up educational plans for the Sonora ISD that were accepted by the district. The organization also helped plan the consolidation of the Del Rio and San Felipe school districts. Councils organized their own local events. When the Kingsville group invited historian Cleofas Callero to a function, 500 attended the event. The San Antonio chapter supported a march against police violence. The Cassiano council fought for sidewalk and street improvement for children walking to school. Lanier High School in San Antonio was identified as a segregated school by the San José Consejo. Since the school enrollment was 66 percent Mexican American, they argued, demography prevented "contact with other ethnics." The El Campo Consejo and the East Texas Consejos del Barrios raised $8,000 for the son of a migrant worker in need of a kidney transplant. TEAMA also supported the right of students to "petition for grievances, and boycott classes" in support of Mexican-American students and parents who were picketing the Southside San Antonio and Uvalde schools. In July 1970 the Austin TEAMA chapter presented a bicultural education session at a Raza Unida party conference. TEAMA wrote a proposal to the John Hay Whitney Foundation for funding to conduct an investigation of the Texas Ranger' reputed historical role in suppressing the Mexican-descent community. TEAMA also established a Chicano library, allegedly the most thorough in the state at the time. TEAMA apparently dissolved when federal funding ended in 1972.


Joe Bernal Papers, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin. George I. Sanchez Papers, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin.

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Cynthia E. Orozco, "TEXANS FOR THE EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT OF MEXICAN AMERICANS," accessed August 14, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/kat12.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Modified on May 20, 2019. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...