While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


Neil Sapper
Lonnie E. Smith
Photograph, Portrait of Lonnie E. Smith. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Logo for the NAACP
Logo for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

SMITH, LONNIE E. (1901–1971). Lonnie E. Smith, black dentist and civil rights activist, son of Gus and Sara (Robinson) Smith, was born in Yoakum, Texas, in 1901. He graduated from Providence Hill High School in Providence in 1919 and attended Prairie View A&M College for two years. Smith was accepted for dental study and received a D.D.S. degree from Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1924. In 1925 he opened a dental practice in Galveston in partnership with E. A. Etta. In 1929 Smith moved to Houston and practiced dentistry at a downtown office. On July 27, 1940, he attempted to vote in the Democratic primary in his Harris County precinct in Houston. As an African American, he was denied a ballot under the white primary rules of the time. Smith, with the assistance of attorneys supplied by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (including the future United States Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall), filed suit in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas in 1942. Smith petitioned for redress for the denial of his rights under the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Seventeenth amendments by the precinct election judge, S. E. Allwright. Following an unfavorable ruling in the district court, Smith's attorneys lodged appeals that ultimately reached the Supreme Court. On April 3, 1944, the court's decision in Smith v. Allwright reversed the prior decisions against Smith by a margin of eight to one. Since that time, all eligible Texans have had the right to vote in the primary election of their choice. Smith later served as a Democratic precinct committeeman, as well as a member and officer of Good Hope Baptist Church of Houston; additionally, he was a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity, the Charles A. George Dental Society, and the Houston Negro Chamber of Commerce. He served as president of the A. A. Lucas Chapter of the NAACP. He married Janie Mae Dunn in 1924; they had no children. Smith was living in Houston at the time of his death, on March 6, 1971.


Darlene Clark Hine, Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas (Millwood, New York: KTO Press, 1979). Houston Metropolitan Research Center Files, Houston Public Library. Neil Gary Sapper, A Survey of the History of the Black People of Texas, 1930–1954 (Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Tech University, 1972).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Neil Sapper, "SMITH, LONNIE E.," accessed July 13, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fsm60.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Modified on February 21, 2020. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...