While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


ROSS, JAMES J. (ca. 1787–1835). James J. Ross, one of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred colonists, was born around 1787. Little is known about his early life. On June 1, 1821, he married Mariah Cummins, daughter of James Cummins, in Clark County, Arkansas. The same year he was tried and acquitted on bigamy charges stemming from an earlier marriage to Sinthia Ross, from whom he was granted a divorce in July 1822. He arrived in the Austin colony sometime in late 1822 or early 1823. In December 1823 Austin appointed him captain of the militia of the Colorado district. He received title to one sitio of land in present-day Colorado County on July 19, 1824. The census of March 1826 listed Ross as a farmer and stock raiser, aged between twenty-five and forty. His household included his wife, a son, a daughter, and five slaves. He led attacks against the Tawakoni Indians in 1825 and the Waco and associated tribes in 1826. That same year Benjamin W. Edwards tried to enlist Ross to join him in the Fredonian Rebellion. In 1827 Ross and Nancy Cummins, the younger sister of his wife Mariah, had a child born out of wedlock; Mariah left her husband, and Ross married Nancy in San Antonio on July 19, 1828. The couple later had four more children. On February 16, 1828, Ross purchased a league and a half of land along the Colorado River in southern Fayette County. He moved there the same year and built a house near where Ross Creek empties into the Colorado River. Along with James Cummins and John Crier he founded the town of Fayetteville. He also founded a stage station on the old San Felipe Trail, and Ross Prairie was named for him. On January 14, 1835, Ross, who was sheltering a group of Tonkawa Indians on his land, was involved in a confrontation with some other settlers. The group, which according to one account included James S. Lester, John Rabb, and Ross's brother-in-law Col. John Henry Moore, tried forcibly to remove the Indians. In the subsequent shootout Ross was killed. He was buried near his homestead on a small hill locally known as Ross Cemetery.

James Ross, a single man from Kentucky, came to the Austin colony in 1833. It is not certain whether it was he or James J. Ross who married Mrs. M. A. Wallace at Washington in November 1844.

Another James Ross was a merchant at Port Lavaca who had once lived at Texana and at Washington-on-the-Brazos. He committed suicide on January 1, 1849.

Eugene C. Barker, ed., The Austin Papers (3 vols., Washington: GPO, 1924–28). Eugene C. Barker, The Life of Stephen F. Austin (Nashville: Cokesbury Press, 1925; rpt., New York: AMS Press, 1970). Lester G. Bugbee, "The Old Three Hundred: A List of Settlers in Austin's First Colony," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 1 (October 1897). J. H. Kuykendall, "Reminiscences of Early Texans," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 6–7 (January, April, July 1903). Worth Stickley Ray, Austin Colony Pioneers (Austin: Jenkins, 1949; 2d ed., Austin: Pemberton, 1970). Harold Schoen, comp., Monuments Erected by the State of Texas to Commemorate the Centenary of Texas Independence (Austin: Commission of Control for Texas Centennial Celebrations, 1938). Telegraph and Texas Register, November 6, 1844. Texas National Register, December 7, 1844. William Barret Travis, Diary, ed. Robert E. Davis (Waco: Texian, 1966). Amelia W. Williams and Eugene C. Barker, eds., The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813–1863 (8 vols., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1938–43; rpt., Austin and New York: Pemberton Press, 1970).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, "ROSS, JAMES J.," accessed July 11, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fro80.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...