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RIVERA Y VILLALÓN, PEDRO DE (?–?). Pedro de Rivera y Villalón, a brigadier in the Spanish army, was sent from New Mexico in 1724 on a tour to inspect the frontier defenses of New Spain. The trip, which lasted until June 29, 1728, covered more than 8,000 miles. In his diary Rivera described the location of settlements and Indians, customs and habits of the inhabitants, and the products of the soil. His engineer, Francisco Álvarez Barreyto, made a map of the Texas frontier in 1727, including detailed examinations of the coast country between La Bahía and the Neches River. Rivera's report advocated consolidation for economy, suggested a vigorous policy for the suppression of the Apaches, and recommended the removal of the La Bahía presidio (Nuestra Señora de Loretoqv) to the Medina River to check the Apaches in that area. His recommendation regarding La Bahía was not followed, but his report did result in the moving of three East Texas missions to San Antonio in 1731.


Carlos E. Castañeda, Our Catholic Heritage in Texas (7 vols., Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1936–58; rpt., New York: Arno, 1976). Charles W. Hackett, ed., Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas (4 vols., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1931–46). Retta Murphy, "The Journey of Pedro de Rivera, 1724–1728," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 41 (October 1937). Elizabeth Howard West, trans., "Bonilla's Brief Compendium of the History of Texas, 1772," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 8 (July 1904).

Robert Bruce Blake


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Robert Bruce Blake, "RIVERA Y VILLALON, PEDRO DE," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 28, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.