While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


RAMÍREZ Y SESMA, JOAQUÍN (?–?). Joaquín Ramírez y Sesma, Mexican general, commanded the brigade sent in advance of the main body of Antonio López de Santa Anna's troops. His orders were to relieve Gen. Martín Perfecto de Cos in San Antonio, but news of Cos's surrender (December 1835) and retreat to Laredo reached Mexico shortly after Ramírez's departure. Ramírez joined Cos at Laredo with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. Santa Anna overtook them at the Rio Grande, and the troops advanced to San Antonio, where they seized the Alamo on March 6, 1836. On March 11, 1836, Ramírez was ordered to go with Gen. Adrián Woll to San Felipe de Austin and then to Anahuac by way of Harrisburg. On March 24 his orders were changed, and he was instructed to sustain the left wing of José de Urrea's forces, but the resistance encountered at Beeson's Ford on the Colorado caused Ramírez and Woll to camp on the south bank of the river about two miles from the Texas forces on the opposite side. On April 7 Santa Anna changed Ramírez's orders again, instructing him to cross the Colorado near Bastrop and continue to San Felipe de Austin. Santa Anna then proceeded with an advance detachment, and Ramírez followed at a distance of approximately twenty leagues. He began crossing his troops over the Brazos at Thompson's Ferry on April 13 with orders to continue toward Harrisburg. At the time of the battle of San Jacinto Ramírez was encamped on the right bank of the Brazos near the Old Fort settlement in what is now Fort Bend County. He joined Vicente Filisola and the other Mexican generals on April 25 and accompanied the troops in the general Mexican retreat.

Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas (2 vols., San Francisco: History Company, 1886, 1889). Stephen L. Hardin, Texian Iliad: A Military History of the Texas Revolution (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994). Jeff Long, Duel of Eagles: The Mexican and U.S. Fight for the Alamo (New York: Morrow, 1990). Antonio López de Santa Anna et al., The Mexican Side of the Texan Revolution, trans. Carlos E. Castañeda (Dallas: Turner, 1928; 2d ed., Austin: Graphic Ideas, 1970). Dudley Goodall Wooten, ed., A Comprehensive History of Texas (2 vols., Dallas: Scarff, 1898; rpt., Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1986).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, "RAMIREZ Y SESMA, JOAQUIN," accessed July 04, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fra22.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...