While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


John H. Jenkins

HAMER, FRANCIS AUGUSTUS (1884–1955). Francis A. Hamer, Texas Ranger, son of Frank and Lou Emma (Francis) Hamer, was born in Fairview, Texas, on March 17, 1884. Known commonly as Frank or Pancho, he grew up on the Welch Ranch in San Saba County. In 1894 the family moved to Oxford in Llano County, where Hamer worked at his father's blacksmith shop. In 1901 he and his brother hired out as wranglers on the Pecos County ranch of Barry Ketchum, brother of outlaw Tom "Black Jack" Ketchum (see KETCHUM BOYS). In 1905 Hamer was a cowboy on the Carr Ranch, between Sheffield and Fort Stockton, where, after capturing a horse thief, he was recommended by Sheriff D. S. Barker for a position with the Texas Rangers. On April 21, 1906, Hamer enlisted as a Texas Ranger in Capt. John H. Rogers's Company C. Working primarily along the South Texas border, Hamer became known as an expert shot. In 1908 he resigned from the rangers to become marshal of the lawless community of Navasota. Hamer brought order to the area, remaining as marshal until April 21, 1911, when he became a special officer in Harris County. On March 29, 1915, Hamer rejoined the rangers at Del Rio and began one of the most eventful periods of his peace officer career, patrolling the South Texas border from the Big Bend to Brownsville when arms smuggling, bootlegging, and banditry were rampant. The Texas Rangers, including Hamer, received some criticism regarding their use of force during their years patrolling the border area. Most notably, legislator José T. Canales accused Hamer of threatening him in 1918. On May 12, 1917, Hamer married Gladys Johnson who had two daughters from a previous marriage. The couple also had two sons. In 1920 Hamer served as a prohibition officer. He was transferred to Austin in 1921. He rose to the rank of senior captain and made Austin his permanent home.

During the following decade he was instrumental in restoring order in oil boom towns such as Mexia and Gander Slu in 1922 and Borger in 1927, and he participated in numerous fights with lawbreakers. In 1928 Hamer was credited with exposing a banking "reward ring" in which the Texas Bankers' Association publicly announced a standing reward of $5,000 for any dead bank robber. Hamer charged that some people were framing others and also tracking down small-time hoods just to kill them and collect the money. In 1932 Hamer retired from active duty but retained his commission. On February 1, 1934, Marshall Lee Simmons, head of the prison system, asked Hamer to take the new position of special investigator for the Texas prison system. Hamer was assigned to track down the nationally known outlaws Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker. After a three-month search, he trapped them near Gibsland, Louisiana, on May 23, 1934, and with the aid of several local policemen shot and killed them. Congress awarded Hamer a special citation for catching the pair. During the late 1930s Hamer worked for various oil companies and shippers as a private agent preventing strikes and breaking up mobs. In 1948 he again was called to duty as a ranger by Governor Coke Stevenson to accompany him and help check the election returns in Jim Wells and Duval County in the controversial United States Senate race. Hamer retired in 1949 and lived in Austin until his death. The lawman had been wounded numerous times and had killed an undetermined number of felons. He died in his sleep on July 10, 1955, and was buried in Austin Memorial park. In 1968 Hamer's widow and his son Frank, Jr., sued the producers of the 1967 movie Bonnie and Clyde for their portrayal of Hamer. They charged defamation of character among other things. In 1971 they were awarded a settlement out of court.


Evan Anders, Boss Rule in South Texas: The Progressive Era (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982). Robert A. Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson (New York: Knopf, 1982-). H. Gordon Frost and John H. Jenkins, "I'm Frank Hamer": The Life of a Texas Peace Officer (Austin: Pemberton Press, 1968). Julian Samora et al., Gunpowder Justice: A Reassessment of the Texas Rangers (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979). Lee Simmons, Assignment Huntsville: Memoirs of a Texas Prison Official (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1957). William Warren Sterling, Trails and Trials of a Texas Ranger (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968). Vertical Files, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin. Walter Prescott Webb, The Texas Rangers (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935; rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, John H. Jenkins, "HAMER, FRANCIS AUGUSTUS," accessed August 12, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fha32.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Modified on April 1, 2019. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...