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GOUGE, WILLIAM M. (1796–1863). William M. Gouge, economist and author, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 10, 1796. He was associate editor of the Philadelphia Gazette from 1823 to 1829 and reporter of the debates of the Delaware Convention of 1831. He wrote several books on banking, including A Short History of Money and Banking in the United States (1833), History of the American Banking System (1835), and Expediency of Dispensing with Bank Paper (1837). He also edited several journals, including the Journal of Banking (Philadelphia, 1841). In his early years Gouge was a staunch opponent of paper money, banks, and corporations; he believed that irresponsible corporations held control of bank depositors' money. His attitude mellowed in later years, though he did warn of the dangers of issuing notes in excess of actual funds. In 1852 he visited Austin, Texas, and wrote The Fiscal History of Texas. He became a special agent of the United States Treasury Department in 1854, was accountant for the State Bank of Arkansas, 1857–58, and wrote Report of the Accountants of the State Bank of Arkansas (1858). He died in Trenton, New Jersey, on July 14, 1863.


Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 2. Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Scribner, 1928–81). National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 24. Texas State Gazette, April 17, 1852.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

"GOUGE, WILLIAM M.," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 25, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.