While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


Charles Durham Gouldie

DURHAM, GEORGE JOHN (1820–1868). George John Durham, state official and writer, was born in Norwich, Norfolk, England, on May 12, 1820, the son of William and Ester (Bloomfield) Durham; he was a younger brother of William Davis Durham. He immigrated to the United States in 1835 and moved to Texas from New Jersey in 1837. The next year he became chief clerk in the comptroller's office, which was located in Houston at that time (see CAPITALS). He moved to Austin with the government in 1839. Durham was in Austin when surveyors laid out the site for the new capital in 1839 and purchased twenty-eight of the original lots. He served as an officer in the Travis Guards (see TRAVIS GUARDS AND RIFLES) in 1840, and in 1842 he resisted the moving of government documents from Austin during the Archives War. After annexation he was chief clerk in the comptroller's office under James B. Shaw and Clement R. Johns. Durham was the auctioneer in Austin in December 1850, when the government sold town lots to raise money for the construction of a building for the land office. He married Cassandra Lincecum, the daughter of Gideon Lincecum, on December 23, 1852; they became the parents of seven children, three of whom lived to adulthood.

Durham was elected mayor of Austin in 1852. In 1854, while in that office, he shot and killed a man who had repeatedly threatened his life; he was acquitted. In 1861 he was a delegate to the Secession Convention. He served for a short time as an orderly sergeant in the Confederate Army but was recalled to act as state war-tax collector. In 1865, after the break-up of the Confederacy, he successfully resisted armed men who tried to remove funds from the comptroller's office. Durham ran for state treasurer on the ticket with James Webb Throckmorton in 1866 but was defeated. He served as secretary of the Democratic state convention in 1868.

He was also an ornithologist, an authority on Texas grapes, an excellent marksman, and a writer. Under the pen name De Los Llanos he contributed a series of hunting articles entitled "Shooting in Western Texas" to the London Field magazine. Durham was a correspondent of the Smithsonian Institution, and he wrote two articles on grape culture and several articles on game in Texas published in the Texas Almanac of 1868–69. In 1867 he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Science in Philadelphia. He died of typhoid in Austin on April 10, 1868, and was buried in the family plot at Oakwood Cemetery.


Frank Brown, Annals of Travis County and the City of Austin (MS, Frank Brown Papers, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin). Lois Wood Burkhalter, Gideon Lincecum, 1793–1874: A Biography (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965). Marie Durham Cabler, "Unsung Hero: A Biography of George J. Durham," East Texas Historical Journal 10 (Spring 1972). Dallas Herald, April 24, 1869. S. W. Geiser, "Men of Science in Texas, 1820–1880," Field and Laboratory 26–27 (July-October 1958-October 1959). Amelia W. Williams and Eugene C. Barker, eds., The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813–1863 (8 vols., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1938–43; rpt., Austin and New York: Pemberton Press, 1970).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Charles Durham Gouldie, "DURHAM, GEORGE JOHN," accessed June 02, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fdu24.

Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Modified on May 1, 2017. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...