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REBEL. With the motto "The great appear great to us only because we are on our knees-Let us arise," the Rebel began weekly publication as the state paper representing the Socialist party in Hallettsville, Lavaca County in 1911. Thomas A. Hickey and E. O. Meitzen owned and operated the Socialist Printing Company, which produced the Rebel. Hickey and Meitzen also published the socialist paper New Era, which was published concurrently with the Rebel. By 1912 the circulation of the Rebel reached 17,000 statewide, and this increased to 23,000 before World War I. In 1917 publication was halted by government order.


Paul C. Boethel, The History of Lavaca County (San Antonio: Naylor, 1936; rev. ed., Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1959).

Jeff Carroll


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Jeff Carroll, "REBEL," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 30, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.