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Gary Hartman
Armando Marroquin
Armando Marroquín works in his studio in Alice, Texas. As cofounder of Ideal Records, he recorded and promoted the music of many South Texas artists, including his wife Carmen and sister-in-law Laura as the duet Carmen y Laura. Carmen Marroquín Collection, Texas Music Museum

IDEAL RECORDS. Ideal Records, one of the most influential regional recording companies for Mexican-American music during the post–World War II era, was founded in 1946 by Armando Marroquín (with partner and distributor Paco Betancourt) in Alice, Texas. Marroquín started recording local artists during the 1940s. Major record labels had begun reducing their involvement in the ethnic music markets, in part because of wartime shortages of shellac and other materials needed for making records. Frustrated with the major labels' abandonment of the local music markets, Marroquín paid $200 for an acetate-disk recording machine and set up a makeshift studio in his home. The first recordings he made were of Carmen y Laura (the former being his wife) and Narciso Martínez. Paco Betancourt, who owned the Rio Grande Music Company in San Benito, helped distribute the records. Marroquín also found distributors in the Los Angeles area. With very little competition from other labels, Marroquín's records sold very well, and the Ideal studio soon became a magnet for aspiring local musicians who previously had virtually no access to major recording facilities.

Over the next few decades, Ideal Records helped resurrect or launch the careers of several important performers. Among the most successful of the Ideal artists, besides Martínez, were Tony de la Rosa, Valerio Longoria, and El Conjunto Bernal, led by Eloy and Paulino Bernal. Perhaps the most influential musician to record for Ideal was Alberto "Beto" Villa, widely recognized as the "father" of orquesta Tejana, a unique blend of traditional Mexican folk music with 1940s big-band swing. Hoping to push popular Mexican-American music in a new direction, Villa persuaded Marroquín to let him add more sophisticated instrumentation and musical arrangements to what had been a traditional conjunto band. Consequently, Villa was able to build a larger orchestra that combined Mexican-American folk-music traditions with the big-band sound that dominated the popular music scene during and after World War II. Despite Marroquín's initial apprehension, Villa's new sound quickly caught on and led to a booming orquesta Tejana movement that influenced Mexican-American music for generations to come.

Ideal Records played a major role in shaping Tejano music in other ways as well. Martínez helped make the accordion a standard backup instrument for a variety of prominent vocal duets. Longoria was the first to make vocals a prominent feature of conjunto by integrating polka instrumentals with ranchera lyrics. Longoria also led the way in incorporating into conjunto modern drums and such popular dance steps as the bolero. Despite complaints from some that Marroquín exploited his artists by underpaying them, Ideal remained the largest and most influential regional Mexican-American music label in the Southwest until Marroquín founded a new company, Nopal Records, in 1960. His former partner, Paco Betancourt, continued to distribute Ideal recordings through his Rio Grande Music Company and opened a new studio with a family member, John Phillips, Sr. Reportedly, a young local musician, Baldemar Huerta (later known as Freddy Fender), helped out with engineering duties and also recorded there.

In 1990 music historian and Arhoolie Records owner Chris Strachwitz purchased all the Ideal masters which had been stored in San Benito at the Rio Grande Music Company. Thus many pioneer Tejano and conjunto recordings have been preserved and subsequently reissued for discovery by new audiences.


Manuel Peña, Música Tejana: The Cultural Economy of Artistic Transformation (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1999). Manuel Peña, The Texas-Mexican Conjunto: History of a Working-Class Music (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985). Chris Strachwitz, "The Roots of Tejano and Conjunto Music," Arhoolie Records, 1991 (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/benson/border/arhoolie2/raices.html), accessed October 12, 2011.

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Gary Hartman, "IDEAL RECORDS," accessed July 10, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/ebi01.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Modified on December 2, 2015. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
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