While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »


Thomas N. Campbell

XARAME INDIANS. The Xarame (Charame, Chaulama, Jarame, Shiarame, Zarame) Indians are not to be confused with Xaraname (Aranama) Indians of the coastal region, although both groups are considered to have spoken Coahuiltecan languages. The aboriginal range of the Xarames seems not to have been the area around San Antonio, as some historians have asserted. Such evidence as exists suggests that the Xarame Indians originally ranged south of the Edwards Plateau in a strip of territory that extended from the Nueces and Frio rivers southwestward across the Rio Grande into northeastern Coahuila. They were one of the four Coahuiltecan bands for which the original San Juan Bautista Mission was established in 1699 on the Río Sabinas of Coahuila. Shortly afterward, when this mission was moved to the Rio Grande near the site of present Eagle Pass, these Xarames moved with it. Other Xarame Indians entered the nearby San Francisco Solano Mission when it was founded in 1700. In 1716 still other Xarames were represented at Ranchería Grande, where groups of Coahuiltecan and Tonkawa refugees had assembled near the Brazos River to escape both Apache and Spanish domination. In 1718, when San Francisco Solano Mission was moved from the Rio Grande to San Antonio and became known as the San Antonio de Valero Mission, some of the Xarame Indians went with it, forming a nucleus of mission-trained Indians who helped give instruction to other Coahuiltecan bands gathered there. Xarame Indians are mentioned in the records of San Antonio de Valero as late as 1776. Marriage records of Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña Mission in San Antonio contain the names of Xarame Indians who entered this mission in 1733 and later. J. R. Swanton listed Harame and Xarame Indians as separate Coahuiltecan bands, but he did not explain why he made this judgment.

Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). John R. Swanton, The Indian Tribes of North America (Gross Pointe, Michigan: Scholarly Press, 1968).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "XARAME INDIANS," accessed July 03, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmx02.

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...