sidebar menu icon


TOYAL INDIANS. The Toyal (Tojal) Indians are known only from the narrative of François Simars de Bellisle, a Frenchman who was held in captivity by the Caux Indians (evidently the Akokisas) during the early eighteenth century. De Bellisle reported that his captors killed and ate a Toyal man somewhere west or northwest of Galveston Bay. Early writers linked the Toyals with the Sadamons, but the evidence for this was never made explicit. More recent writers have equated the Toyals with the Tohahas, who were reported in the same area. The Tohaha Indians are generally considered to have been of Tonkawan affiliation.

Henri Folmer, "De Bellisle on the Texas Coast," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 44 (October 1940). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). William W. Newcomb, The Indians of Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1961).
Thomas N. Campbell

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to:

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Toyal Indians," accessed December 15, 2017,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.