Thomas N. Campbell

SULUJAM INDIANS. Although they were apparently native to the area lying between the San Antonio and Frio rivers south and southeast of San Antonio, the Sulujams were not encountered by the earliest Spanish travelers who traversed parts of southern Texas. They were first seen in 1709 at the site of present-day San Antonio. There is no indication that they had been displaced from some other area and had migrated into southern Texas. Sulujams are said to have entered Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo of San Antonio in considerable numbers when it was founded in 1720. As the registers of San José have not been found, no figure can be given for the total number of Sulujams in residence at the mission. A few entered nearby San Antonio de Valero Mission, whose surviving registers identify twelve Sulujam individuals for the period 1719–56. No Sulujams seem to have entered the remaining three missions of San Antonio or any missions elsewhere. It is generally thought that the Sulujams spoke a dialect of the Coahuilteco language, but this is not based on conclusive evidence. Nothing is known of the Sulujams' culture other than that they lived by hunting and gathering.

Thomas N. Campbell and T. J. Campbell, Historic Indian Groups of the Choke Canyon Reservoir and Surrounding Area, Southern Texas (San Antonio: Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1981). J. Jesús Figueroa Torres, Fr. Juan Larios, defensor de los Indios y fundador de Coahuila (Mexico City: Editorial Jus, 1963). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959).

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "SULUJAM INDIANS," accessed August 21, 2019,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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