Thomas N. Campbell

SINICU INDIANS. This name is known only from baptismal records at the San Antonio de Valero Mission of San Antonio. The published literature dealing with the Sinicu Indians is somewhat confusing. In one article (Sinicu) in the Handbook of American Indians, H. E. Bolton listed four names in the above-named baptismal records as synonyms of Sinicu, namely, Censoc, Censoo, Seniczo, and Senixzo; but in another article (San Antonio de Valero) Bolton listed both Sinicu and Siniczo, the latter being identified as a synonym for Cenizo or Seniso. Such facts as are now available suggest that all of these names are probably variants of Cenizo, the name of a well-known band of Coahuiltecan Indians who lived in northeastern Mexico during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Some Cenizo Indians entered the San Francisco Solano Mission near present Eagle Pass about 1700. In 1718, when this mission was moved to San Antonio and became known as San Antonio de Valero the Cenizo moved with it. Hence it seems reasonable to consider Bolton's Sinicu and his synonyms for Sinicu as probable variants of Cenizo. Further analysis of the primary documents is needed for solution of this problem. J. R. Swanton listed Cenizo and Sinicu as separate Coahuiltecan bands. There is no basis for equating the Sinicu with the Semoco (Secmoco), as some writers have suggested. It is possible but not probable that the Nigco Indians of San Antonio de Valero were Sinicus.

Joseph Antonio Fernández de Jáuregui Urrutia, Description of Nuevo León, Mexico (1735–1740), ed. Malcolm D. McLean and Eugenio del Hoyo (Monterrey: Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores, 1964). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). Esteban L. Portillo, Apuntes para la historia antigua de Coahuila y Texas (Saltillo: Tipografía "El Golfo de México" de Severo Fernández, 1886). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "SINICU INDIANS," accessed December 12, 2019,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
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