Members Only Area
Bookmark and Share


SADAMMO INDIANS. The Sadammo (Caitsodammo, Sadamon, Sadujam) Indians are known from a few documents of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These sources identify the Sadammos as enemies of both the Hasinais and the Kadohadachos. Although it is generally thought that the Sadammos were Apaches, this has never been proved. One French source equated the Sadammo Indians with the Toyals, but the evidence for this was not made explicit (recent writers identify the Toyals with the Tohahas). J. R. Swanton thought that the Sadammos were the same people as the Nadamins, but in documents of the La Salle expedition the Sadammo (Caitsodammo) Indians were listed as enemies of the Kadohadachos, whereas the Nadamins were listed as their allies. It does not seem likely that the two names refer to the same people. Swanton also stated that the Sadamon Indians were either Apachean or Tonkawan in affiliation. The status of the Sadammos remains in doubt.


Henri Folmer, "De Bellisle on the Texas Coast," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 44 (October 1940). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). Pierre Margry, ed., Découvertes et établissements des Français dans l'ouest et dans le sud de l'Amérique septentrionale, 1614–1754 (6 vols., Paris: Jouast, 1876–86). John R. Swanton, Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 132, Washington: GPO, 1942).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "SADAMMO INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed May 28, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.