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PINOLE INDIANS. The Pinole Indians are known only from a Spanish document of 1693, which refers to them as "those who eat all of their food made into pinole." They are mentioned as one of fifty "nations" that lived north of the Rio Grande and "between Texas and New Mexico." This may be interpreted to mean the southern part of western Texas, since the document also states that the Apaches were at war with the groups named. Nothing further is known about the Pinole Indians.


Charles W. Hackett, ed., Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and Approaches Thereto, to 1773 (3 vols., Washington: Carnegie Institution, 1923–37).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "PINOLE INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 27, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.