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PASCAGOULA INDIANS. When first known in 1699 the Pascagoula (Pacha-Ogoula, Pascagola, Pascaboula, Paskaguna) Indians lived in southwestern Alabama and southeastern Mississippi, but in the middle eighteenth century they crossed the Mississippi and settled near the mouth of the Red River in Louisiana. In the early nineteenth century pressure from American settlers forced them farther westward. Some of the Pascagoulas entered Texas and lived with the Biloxi Indians near the Neches River in the area of present Angelina County, and others seem to have settled on the Red River in northeastern Texas. Most of the Pascagoula Indians in Texas probably accompanied the Biloxis to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, but at least a few remained and evidently joined the Alabama Indians of present Polk County (two of their descendants were found there in 1908). Some linguists have considered the Pascagoulas as Siouan, others as Muskhogean.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). John R. Swanton, Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico (Washington: GPO, 1911). John R. Swanton, The Indians of the Southeastern United States (Washington: GPO, 1946). John R. Swanton, The Indian Tribes of North America (Gross Pointe, Michigan: Scholarly Press, 1968).
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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "PASCAGOULA INDIANS," accessed November 18, 2018, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmp36.
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