Thomas N. Campbell

PAMOQUE INDIANS. The Pamoque (Pamaque, Pamaca, Pamache, Panague) Indians were Coahuiltecan-speaking Indians who in the early eighteenth century ranged between the lower San Antonio and Nueces rivers. However, they are most firmly associated with the area around the mouth of the Nueces River on Nueces and Corpus Christi bays. They were closely related to the Pasnacane, Piguique, and Viayan Indians; in fact, some Spanish writers considered these three groups as subdivisions of the Pamoques. The Pamoques were frequently mentioned with the Orejons, who appear to have lived farther inland, north of the lower Nueces River. Some of the Pamoque Indians entered San Antonio missions (Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña and San Juan Capistrano); others went to Nuestra Señora del Refugio Mission near the coast, and some of these survived well into the nineteenth century, perhaps as late as 1828, before losing their ethnic identity. Identification of the Pamoques with the Panequos reported in documents (1687) of the La Salle expedition has been suggested but not demonstrated.

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1915; rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970). Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington: GPO, 1907, 1910; rpt., New York: Pageant, 1959). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "PAMOQUE INDIANS," accessed July 17, 2019,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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