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JUANCA INDIANS. The Juanca are known mainly from documents written between 1723 and 1772 that pertain to two Spanish missions, San Bernardo of northeastern Coahuila and San Antonio de Valero of San Antonio. Very few Juancas entered each mission. Only one document refers to them as living under native conditions in premission times. This is a report by Damián Massanet, who in 1690 found them in association with twelve other remnant Indian groups, all hunters and gatherers, in the Frio River watershed, apparently in the vicinity of modern Frio County. According to Massanet, these groups spoke the language now known as Coahuilteco. In various documents, particularly the registers of San Antonio de Valero Mission, the name Juanca was sometimes so distorted by missionaries new to the area that scholars have been led to believe the name variants refer to six separate Indian groups. Mission register analysis and phonetic comparison show that the following names all refer to the Juanca Indians: Huacacasa, Juamaca, Juncata, Quanataguo, Tuanca, and Vanca. Two additional names, Janca and Jancae, have been mistakenly identified as variants of the name Tonkawa. These names refer instead to the Juanca Indians.

Thomas N. Campbell, Ethnic Identities of Extinct Coahuiltecan Populations: Case of the Juanca Indians (Pearce-Sellards Series 26 [Austin: Texas Memorial Museum, 1977]).
Thomas N. Campbell

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Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Juanca Indians," accessed November 21, 2017,

Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.