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GEIER INDIANS. Little is known about the Geier because they are mentioned in very few documents. In 1675 some of them visited the Spanish settlement now known as Monclova, Coahuila, and were recorded there under the name Papuliquier, which is a fusion of two group names, Pacpul and Geier. In 1690 Damián Massanet saw an encampment of Geier and five other Indian groups in the valley of the Frio River southwest of the site of modern San Antonio, apparently in or near the area of Frio County. According to Massanet, all of these groups spoke the language now known as Coahuilteco. In 1708 they were said to be living in the same area, but after that year the Geier Indians disappear from the historical record. They seem not to have entered any Spanish mission of Coahuila or Texas. It appears likely that they lost their identity by merging with some group that survived in larger numbers, such as the Pacuaches, with whom they were associated on the Frio River in 1690.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:Lino Gómez Canedo, ed., Primeras exploraciones y poblamiento de Texas, 1686–1694 (Monterrey: Publicaciones del Instituto Technológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 1968). P. Otto Maas, ed., Viajes de Misioneros Franciscanos a la conquista del Nuevo México (Seville: Imprenta de San Antonio, 1915). Esteban L. Portillo, Apuntes para la historia antigua de Coahuila y Texas (Saltillo: Tipografía "El Golfo de México" de Severo Fernández, 1886). J. R. Swanton, Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1940).
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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "GEIER INDIANS," accessed July 17, 2019, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmg03.
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