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CAYNAAYA INDIANS. The Caynaaya (Caynaagua) Indians are known mainly from a document of 1691 which reported them encamped with Cíbola and Jumano Indians on the Guadalupe River east of San Antonio, where they were hunting bison. In this document it is stated that these three groups lived far to the west on the Rio Grande and that their country was adjacent to that of the Salineros, who lived along the lower stretches of the Pecos River. This seems to place the Caynaaya in Trans-Pecos Texas. As their name does not occur on contemporary lists of Indians living in western Texas, it is possible that the Caynaayas were also known by some alternate name. They were probably the same as the Cagaya, who are named in a Spanish missionary report of 1691 from eastern Texas. This report placed them about eighty leagues southwest of the Hasinai and lists them along with the Jumano (Chuman) Indians.


Herbert E. Bolton, "The Jumano Indians in Texas, 1650–1771," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 15 (July 1911). John R. Swanton, Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 132, Washington: GPO, 1942).

Thomas N. Campbell


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Thomas N. Campbell, "CAYNAAYA INDIANS," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed November 27, 2015. Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.