Thomas N. Campbell

CAXO INDIANS. The Caxo Indians, a tribe of the southwestern or Hasinai division of Caddo Indians, are known from a single 1691 Spanish missionary report. J. R. Swanton identified the Caxos with the Cachaés and followed H. E. Bolton in equating the Cachaés with the Hainais. This is strictly a matter of modern inference and opinion. Caxo and Cachaé both occur as names of tribes in the same document without any indication that they refer to the same people. Bolton argued that Cachaé was an early name for the Hainai (both names are associated with the same area) and that Cataye was a synonym for Cachaé. No early Spanish authority ever stated that Caxo, Cachaé, Cataye, and Hainai were different names for the same people.

Herbert E. Bolton, "The Native Tribes about the East Texas Missions," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 11 (April 1908). John R. Swanton, Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 132, Washington: GPO, 1942).

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Handbook of Texas Online, Thomas N. Campbell, "Caxo Indians," accessed March 20, 2018,

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