- Get Involved
SPANISH FORT SITES
SPANISH FORT SITES. The so-called Spanish Fort Sites, a series of historic archeological sites, stretches for several miles along both banks of the Red River in Montague County, Texas, and Jefferson County, Oklahoma. Remnants of earthworks found at the location by nineteenth-century settlers were erroneously associated with the Spanish. Later studies identified the sites as a group of Indian villages affiliated with the Wichitas. Most authorities believe these to have been the villages of Taovayas Indians and their allies, attacked unsuccessfully by Col. Diego Ortiz Parrilla in 1759 in an effort to punish the Indians responsible for the massacre at Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission the previous year. In the mid-twentieth century Joseph Benton and R. K. Harris collected numerous artifacts from the surface of the sites. E. B. Jelks and J. N. Woodall conducted the only controlled excavations at the Texas sites in 1965 and 1966. In limited testing, they found five house pits, four cache pits, and a number of artifacts, including typical French trade goods (gun parts, brass kettle fragments, steel knife blades, etc.) plus potsherds, clay and stone pipes, clay figurines (of people, animals, and birds), and other items of Indian manufacture. Similar artifacts and features were found in Oklahoma components during test excavations in 1965–67. Artifacts and field notes from the Jelks-Woodall work are stored at the archeology laboratory of Southern Methodist University.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:Robert E. Bell, Edward B. Jelks, and W. W. Newcomb, comps., A Pilot Study of Wichita Indian Archeology and Ethnology (Final Report for Grant GS-964, National Science Foundation [Mimeograph, Southern Methodist University, 1967]). Elizabeth Ann Harper, "The Taovayas Indians in Frontier Trade and Diplomacy, 1719–1768," Chronicles of Oklahoma 31 (Autumn 1953).
Image Use Disclaimer
All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.
For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.Handbook of Texas Online, Edward B. Jelks, "SPANISH FORT SITES," accessed February 23, 2019, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bbs05.
Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.