While our physical offices are closed until further notice in accordance with Austin's COVID-19 "stay home-work safe" order, the Handbook of Texas will remain available at no-cost for you, your fellow history enthusiasts, and all Texas students currently mandated to study from home. If you have the capacity to help us maintain our online Texas history resources during these uncertain times, please consider making a 100% tax-deductible contribution today. Thank you for your support of TSHA and Texas history. Donate Today »

FRIONA, TX

H. Allen Anderson

FRIONA, TEXAS. Friona, on U.S. Highway 60 in northern Parmer County, was originally known as Frio when it was established in 1898 by the Capitol Freehold Land and Investment Company as a shipping station on the Pecos Valley and Northern Texas Railway. Although the name was undoubtedly derived from that of Frio Draw, which runs just south of town, legend relates that local inhabitants named the place for its winter weather (frio is Spanish for "cold"). In 1906 George C. Wright, a Kansas City real estate agent hired by the Capitol Syndicate to subdivide and sell some of the XIT Ranch, surveyed the townsite. The name was altered to Friona when the post office was established in March 1907, with Sarah D. Olson as postmistress. Wright built his company headquarters at Friona, sent out circulars, and hired excursion trains to bring in prospective buyers. By 1908 Friona had its first school, a community church, a bank, two grocery stores, a pharmacy, a photograph gallery, and the two-story Friona Hotel, owned by G. P. Owens. Blizzards in 1910–11 and 1918–19, along with droughts, discouraged farmers and interrupted growth. Nevertheless, Friona had a population of 200 by 1915. The town's first grain elevator was constructed in 1916, and S. A. Harris began a weekly newspaper, the Friona Sentinel; it became the Friona Star in 1925.

In the early 1920s the Capitol Syndicate started a new land-sale program, which, with the advent of new farming methods, attracted another wave of newcomers. The first cotton gin was erected in 1927. On March 21, 1928, the town voted to incorporate, with J. W. "Uncle John" White as mayor presiding over a city council and manager. At about the same time, Friona constructed a water plant and organized a fire department. The population increased from 731 in 1930 to 1,196 in 1950 and 2,048 in 1960. In 1967 the Friona Public Library was organized.

In 1988 Friona had fourteen churches, modern schools, two city parks, a recreation center, a nursing home, an airport, and the county's only hospital. Local businesses were principally related to wheat, cotton, vegetable and sugar beet processing, and cattle. A beef-packing plant had the capacity to slaughter 10,000 cattle a week, and several fertilizer plants and feed processors served area farmers and ranchers. The Friona Wheat Growers Association operated an elevator with a capacity of over three million bushels. Annual events included the Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture Banquet in January, the Fat Stock Show in February, the Junior Rodeo in May, and Maize Days in September. The population was 3,111 in 1970 and 3,809 by 1980, when Friona was the largest town in Parmer County. In 1990 the population was 3,688 and in 2000 it was 3,854.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 
Lana Payne Barnett, and Elizabeth Brooks Buhrkuhl, eds., Presenting the Texas Panhandle (Canyon, Texas: Lan-Bea, 1979). Parmer County Historical Commission, Prairie Progress (Dallas: Taylor, 1981). Parmer County Historical Society, A History of Parmer County (Quanah, Texas: Nortex, 1974). Fred Tarpley, 1001 Texas Place Names (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980).

Image Use Disclaimer

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Citation

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, H. Allen Anderson, "FRIONA, TX," accessed May 27, 2020, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/HGF07.

Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
visit the mytsha forums to participate

View these posts and more when you register your free MyTSHA account.

Call for Papers: Texas Center for Working-Class Studies Events, Symposia, and Workshops
Hi all! You may be interested in this call for papers I received from the Texas Center for Working-Class Studies at Collin College...

Katy Jennings' Ride Scholarly Research Request
I'm doing research on Catherine Jennings Lockwood, specifically the incident known as "Katy Jennings' Ride." Her father was Gordon C. Jennings, the oldest man to die at the Alamo...

Texas Constitution of 1836 Co-Author- Elisha Pease? Ask a Historian
The TSHA profile of Elisha Marshall Pease states that he wrote part of the Texas Constitution although he was only a 24 year-old assistant secretary (not elected). I cannot find any other mention of this authorship work by Pease in other credible research about the credited Constution authors...