On this day in 1833, the Amos Wright sailed from New York for Texas with fifty-nine men, women, and children aboard, the vanguard of a proposed colony backed by the Rio Grande and Texas Land Company and under command of John Charles Beales. In 1832 Beales and James Grant had acquired two tracts and obligated themselves to settle 800 families in the region between the Rio Grande and the Nueces; they set up the joint stock company to promote their venture. The first colonists landed at Copano Bay in December 1833 and journeyed in ox wagons to their destination on Las Moras Creek in present-day Kinney County. Here, in March 1834, the emigrants planted their settlement and named it Dolores, in honor of Beales's Mexican wife. But the colony was doomed to failure. The outbreak of the Texas Revolution caused a general exodus. One large wagon train was attacked by Comanche Indians on the Matamoros road, and all the settlers were massacred except two women and their small children, who were taken captive.
On this day in 1918, World War I came to an end. The armistice found the two most prominent Texas units on active service in France. The Ninetieth Division was fighting its way through the Meuse-Argonne, while the Thirty-Sixth Division was resting behind the lines after suffering heavy casualties in the same offensive. A total of 198,000 Texans saw service in the armed forces during the course of the war. Five thousand one hundred and seventy-one Texans, including one nurse, died in the armed services; 4,748 of the dead served in the army. More than a third of the total deaths occurred inside the United States, many of them as a result of the influenza epidemic of 1918. Four Texans were awarded the Medal of Honor. In a trend that would become even more marked during World War II, military camps were established in Texas to train men for service and the state was the main location for pilot training for military aviation.
On this day in 1890, the Pathfinder's Club, the oldest women's literary club in Austin, was organized by a group of women in the Driskill Hotel parlor. In 1897 the club was one of the twenty-one organizing members of the Texas Federation of Women's Clubs. The club's purpose was mental improvement; in 1971 the task of better understanding the problems facing the world today was added. In the early days each member contributed an original paper, reading, or recitation, and membership was by invitation with unanimous approval of current members. The Pathfinder's Club celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1990.
On this day in 1843, Bethel Church in Sabine County joined four other East Texas Baptist churches in organizing the Sabine Baptist Association. Representatives of the five founding churches met at Union (Old North) Church, four miles north of Nacogdoches. The other churches were Union and Mount Zion, Nacogdoches County, and Border and Bethel, Harrison County. The participation of the Sabine County Bethel Church, located between Milam and Sexton in the county's "dark corner," drew the ire of Daniel Parker, under whose authority it had been constituted in 1841. Parker, his Predestinarian brethren in the Pilgrim Primitive Baptist Church, and the Union Association opposed missionary societies and boards, Bible societies, Sunday schools, and secret organizations, all of which were claimed to be purely devices of man with no scriptural authority for their existence. In August 1844, the Pilgrim Church called upon the Bethel Church to surrender its authority as a church, since it had "departed from the faith and order." Less than two months later, however, thirty-six persons were baptized into the Missionary Baptist faith at Bethel Church. The oldest Baptist church in Sabine County, it has remained in continuous operation since its founding, though its name has been changed to New Hope Baptist Church.